Reading numbers in the millions, rounding and negative numbers are all key concepts for Year 5.

### Counting

Counting forwards and backwards for any given number up to one million.

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### Read, write and compare numbers

Read, write and compare numbers up to one million.

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### Place value

Determine the value of each digit in numbers up to one million.

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### Rounding numbers

Round any number up to millions, to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000. Estimating and approximating.

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### Negative numbers

Interpret negative numbers in context, counting forwards and backwards, including through zero.

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### Roman numerals

Read Roman numerals up to 1 000 (M) and recognise years written in Roman numerals.

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### Other number work

Solve number problems.

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## Number and Place Value

By Year 5 children are expected to be working with larger numbers, including  hundreds of thousands and millions. However, many children, and indeed adults, find it very difficult to read large numbers correctly. The solution is to section the digits off into groups of three, starting with the units.

The first group of three is read as hundreds, tens and units.

e.g.789 is seven hundred and eighty nine

The second group of three is read as hundreds, tens and units of thousands.

e.g. 456 789 is four hundred and fifty six thousand, seven hundred and eighty nine

The third group of three is read as hundreds, tens and units of millions.

So: 123 456 789 is one hundred and twenty three million, four hundred and fifty six thousand, seven hundred and eighty nine

Whilst we read the number from left to right, working out the value of the number is easier by working in threes from right to left!

There is an emphasis on using large numbers in Years 5 and 6. For example, the new targets for Year 5 Number includes:

round any number up to 1 000 000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000

Now this might sound fairly straightforward but for many children it will pose considerable difficulty. By Year 5, children should already be able to round to the nearest 10, 100 and probably 1 000, but dealing with very large numbers can cause confusion.

When rounding to the nearest 10 000 the key figure is the thousands digit. If the thousands digit is 5 or above, round up. If it is below 5, round down.

e.g. 327 550 is 330 000 to the nearest 10 000.

324 259 is 320 000 to the nearest 10 000

(Note that when rounding to the nearest 10 000 it does not matter what the hundreds, tens or units digits are, it is the THOUSANDS digit which must be looked at.)

When rounding to the nearest 100 000 the key figure is the ten thousands digit. If the ten thousands digit is 5 or above, round up. If it is below 5, round down.

e.g. 277 550 is 300 000 to the nearest 100 000.

237 259 is 200 000 to the nearest 100 000