Multiply and Divide in Year 1 (age 5-6)
Multiplication and division is introduced through grouping and sharing small quantities. Doubling and halving are the early stages of multiplication and division. By the end of year 1 children should know, off by heart, the doubles of all numbers up to 10 and work out the equivalent halves. They should also be able to combine groups of two and five and share a group of objects into two equal parts.
The new primary maths curriculum does not have a great deal to say about multiplication in Year 1, apart from that pupils should understand multiplication by grouping small quantities, and calculating using arrays with the support of the teacher. This used to be part of the Year 2 curriculum but has been taken down to Year 1.
A key part of this is that multiplication needs to be understood as repeated addition e.g. 5 added together 3 times is 5 + 5 + 5 or 3 lots of 5 or 3 times 5 or 3 x 5 (or 5 x 3).
One way to show this pictorially is with an array, e.g. 3 rows of 5 or 5 rows of 3, and this helps with understanding that multiplication can be done in any order.
Recognising, making and adding equal groups.
Recognising and counting equal groups
Seeing multiplication as adding equal groups (twos, fives and tens).
More on adding equal groups as an introduction to multiplication.
Begin to understand arrays.
Exploring with doubling small numbers.
Begin to know the double of numbers up to 10.
Doubling small amounts of money. We could all be rich if we could do this in real life!
Counting in twos, fives and tens
Count in multiples of two, five and ten.
Finding 'lots of'. It might help to have some cubes handy to help counting.
A quick look at the multiplication sign and multiplying by 2.
Let's start to count up in whole lots of 5: the beginning of the 5x table.
Find how many taxis are needed for groups of people. 5 in each taxi.
Make sure that everyone gets an equal share.
Draw rings round the money so that each ring has an equal amount of money in it.
Finding as many ways as possible of sharing equally.