## Multiplication

Year 4 is the year that children are expected to have got to grips with all the times tables and learned them ‘off by heart’. In particular this means learning those not covered in previous years; the 6x, 7x and 9x tables as well as the 11x and 12x tables. Of course these also happen to be the hardest to learn!

We have plenty of excellent practice material for all these tables, but children really do need to be able to recite them quickly and correctly. The better they know these tables the quicker they will be able to answer accurately and move on to successful written methods of multiplication and division. We have just added over 50 new pages of tables worksheets, including going up to 12 x 12 so why not take a look now?

Multiplying by 10, 100 and 1000 are fundamental ideas in arithmetic. These ideas will eventually be used in work involving negative numbers, positive numbers, decimals and percentages, so it is very important to master them early on.

Never say 'to multiply by ten we add a nought'. This idea certainly works for whole numbers and is a nice quick explanation, but is totally false for decimals.

e.g. 3.98 x 10 is definitely not 3.980!

If children are taught to ‘add a nought’ there will be a great deal of un-learning needed later on. Bad habits are very difficult to break.

The ideas to get across are as follows:

Multiplying:

When multiplying by 10 the number moves one place to the left.

When multiplying by 100 the number moves two places to the left.

When multiplying by 1 000 the number moves three places to the left.